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Education for refugee children in Beijing
이정화   |   2018. 01. 18 15:10   |  
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(English)

 

 

 

 

Beijing

 

 


 

Internal migration in the People's Republic of  China is one of the broadest in the world according to the  International Labour Organization. Migrants in China are usually members of a floating population, which means migrants in China, without local household registration status through the Chinese Hukou system do not have a residence registration system designed in the 1950s to record and control internal migration. This has eventually blocked rural-to-urban movements. 


In Beijing today, there are nearly 150 to 200 migrant schools, but the funding, amateurish and underpaid teachers, safety issues, and the outdated curricula seem to be a big problem. And just like all Chinese institutions, they experience the capricious twists and turns of political favor and suffer from these problems. The central government gives the funds to the local public schools to take responsibility for the migrant children. What is really important is the fact that most of the migrant schools are private enterprises that are founded by private entrepreneurs, often focused on commercial interests. Many principals who are trying to take profits from it viewed their migrant schools as a business, their students as customers, and school fees as their incomes. Therefore, the central government should set up a system to keep track of their spending if the public schools spend these funds on migrant children's needs.


Government’s plan and the reality


In May 2014, a Chinese spokesperson at a press conference announced a plan that they would transfer about 200 million citizens into the cities of China. Above all other consideration, the plan declared that 150 million migrants who are living in cities would get urban benefits like public education by 2020. Small to medium cities have already begun making their hukou restrictions easier and less strict for migrants. Unfortunately, not all cities are becoming like this. Some cities like Beijing, Shanghai, and Shenzhen will continue to have extremely heavy barriers of entry for migrants. Migrant schools will slowly disappear in these places, either incorporated into the public system, same as Shanghai or they might gradually defeat just like in Beijing. But migrant students themselves may start to head for other places, where the competition is less intense and local hukou is much easier to get.



Urbanization


Urbanization would help loosening social organizations and encouraging migration and creating new opportunities for migrant workers and their children. While the migrants of China choose to live in China’s undeveloped central and western provinces, China will probably start to found the social environments or better facilities to really include those proper migrants as urban citizens, allowing them more opportunities and chances to get a job, receive proper education and some public benefits.


To help them get good opportunities, it is urgent to support and provide these growing cities with better resources. Indeed, such a human migration on this scale is unprecedented because China had never experienced it. Though it might be an extremely huge social planning challenge, once it is accomplished, the existing migrants and the expected migrants of the next generation can all enjoy their equal right to be educated and furthermore, to have better occupations. 

 

 

 

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